The Black September Organization was a Palestinian militant group founded in 1970 in Jordan that targeted civilians. The group's name derives from the Black September conflict begun on September l6, 1970, when King Hussein of Jordan declared military rule in response to a Palestinian fedayeen coup to seize his kingdom. This on-going battle resulted in the defeat of thousands of Palestinians who were either killed or driven out of Jordan.
The Black September Organization began as a small cell of Fatah, a faction of the PLO, men determined to take revenge upon King Hussein and the Jordanian army. (This is the same group now leading the Palestinian Authority in Judea and Samaria.) They recruited members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and other radical groups as well.
The BSO is notorious for the kidnap and murder of eleven Israeli athletes and officials, and the murder of a German policeman, during the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, Germany. There is disagreement among historians, journalists, and primary sources about the nature of the BSO and the extent to which it was controlled by Fatah, the PLO faction controlled at the time by Yasser Arafat.
Mohammed Daoud Oudeh, also known as Abu Daoud, a BSO operative and former senior PLO member, who, according to a 1972 article in the Jordanian newspaper Al-Dustur, told Jordanian police: “There is no such organization as Black September. Fatah announces its own operations under this name so that Fatah will not appear as the direct executor of the operation.” A March 1973 document released in 1981 by the U.S. State Department seemed to confirm that Fatah was Black September's parent organization.
According to American journalist John K. Cooley, Black September was formed to take revenge for King Hussein's expulsion of the PLO from Jordan after an attempt to take over his kingdom. The structure offered plausible deniability to the Fatah leadership, which was careful to distance itself from Black September operations.
Fatah needed Black September, according to Benny Morris, professor of history at Ben-Gurion University. He writes that there was a “problem of internal PLO or Fatah cohesion, with extremists constantly demanding greater militancy. The moderates apparently acquiesced in the creation of Black September in order to survive” (Morris 2001, p. 379
As a result of pressure from militants, writes Morris, a Fatah congress in Damascus in August–September 1971 agreed to establish Black September. The new organization was based on Fatah's existing special intelligence and security apparatus, and on the PLO offices and representatives in various European capitals, and from very early on, there was cooperation between Black September and the PFLP (ibid.)
The PLO closed Black September down on September 1973, on the anniversary it was created by the “political calculation that no more good would come of terrorism abroad” according to Morris (ibid. p. 383).
In 1974 Arafat ordered the PLO to withdraw from acts of violence outside Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip following dozens of other deadly attacks targeting Israelis and others. Among them was the November 28, 1971assassination of Jordan's prime minister, Wasfi Tel, in retaliation for the expulsion of the PLO from Jordan in 1970-71, and also a March 1, 1973 attack on the Saudi embassy in Khartoum, assassinating Cleo Noel, US Chief of Mission to Sudan, his deputy, George Curtis Moore, and Guy Eid the Belgian charge d'affaires to Sudan. Plane hijackings were common. The group's most notorious operation was the killing of 11 Israeli athletes, nine of whom were first taken hostage, and a German police officer, during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich.
Most disturbing is the involvement in the Black September Movement of Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas (former PLO leader Abu Mazen). Today he is hailed as the “moderate” P.A. leader. Here is a brief account of his history:
– As a graduate of Moscow University (Ph.D. thesis: Holocaust Denial) and a beneficiary of KGB training, he managed the logistics of the Munich Massacre of eleven Israeli athletes in 1972.
– He was the architect of PLO ties with ruthless communist regimes until 1989 and, against American, Israeli, and even Arab interests.
– Since1993 he was responsible for a series of PLO accords with Hamas.
In 1950, 1966 and 1970, he was forced to flee Egypt, Syria and Jordan, respectively, for subversive activities.
– During the 1970s and 1980s he participated in PLO attempts to topple the Christian regime in Beirut, which resulted in the 1976 Syrian invasion of Lebanon and a series of civil wars, causing close to 200,000 deaths and hundreds of thousands of refugees.
– As Yasser Arafat’s confidante and first deputy for over fifty years until Arafat's death, Mahmoud Abbas is one of the engineers of contemporary Palestinian hate education, which has become a production line for terrorists.
– In 1990, he collaborated with Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait, despite the Gulf country’s unique hospitality to 400,000 PLO-affiliated Palestinians.
Mahmoud Abbas deserves much credit for the following PLO “accomplishments”:
– The PLO's track record of inter-Arab treachery, non-compliance, corruption, repression and terrorism.
– Since its makeover from a terrorist organization to a semi-independent entity in 1993, the Palestinian Authority, which has been led by PLO graduates of terrorist bases in Iraq, Yemen, Sudan, Lebanon, Syria and Tunisia, has become an incubator for terrorist training and tactics.
– These terrorist activities have been exported to Iraq, Afghanistan, England, Spain and other countries.
– The 1968-70 and 1970-1982 PLO autonomy in Jordan and in Lebanon respectively provided training and inspiration for scores of international terror organizations.
– The PLO introduced the first wave of commercial aircraft hijackings.
They facilitated the murder of 300 US Marines in the 1983 attack on the US Embassy and Marine Headquarters in Beirut.
– The year 1993 – when the PLO catapulted to prominence – marked a wave of anti-US Islamic terrorism, starting with the first bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993 and ending with the September 11 attacks.
Is it any wonder that the Arab nations have turned their backs on their Palestinian brethren, refusing them citizenship in even 1 of their 21 countries?
The last Arab country to reject them is Jordan. King Hussein, learning from his experience with the Palestinian Black September Movement when they tried to usurp his government, undoubtedly prefers to have Israel become the victim of the havoc that they bring to any host country.